Artists

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Baidō

see Kokunimasa

Hirokage LŒi

(active period: Ansei-period until Keiō-period); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì

Disciple of Hiroshige I. His large series Edo meisho dōke zukushi and the triptych Aomono sakana gunzei dai kassen no zu are well-known.

Hiroshige I Ld

(1797-1858); family name: Andō ˆÀ“¡; school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other names: Ichiyūsai ˆê—HÖ, Ichiryūsai ˆê—§Ö, Ryūsai —§Ö

Disciple of Toyohiro. He was one of the leading landscapists but produced a lot of humorous pictures and caricatures, too.

Hiroshige III

see Utashige

Ikkei ˆêŒi

(active period: beginning of the Meiji-period); other names: Keishōsai Œi¸Ö, Shōsai ¸Ö

According to one theory the name Ikkei derives from Hirokage, who was a disciple of Hiroshige I. Ikkei drew a lot of genre paintings and meisho-e with a hint of humor.

Kiyochika ´e

(1847-1912); family name: Kobayashi ¬—Ñ; other names: Hōen-sha •û‰~ŽÉ, Shinseirō ^¶˜O

Representative painter of nishiki-e caricatures of the Meiji-period. In self-study he became a landscapist during the first period of his career. After he started to work at the newspaper Marumaru Chinbun he began to draw the caricature series Kiyochika ponchi. About the Sino-Japanese (1894/95) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904/05) he created the nationalistic-satirical series Hyaku sen hyaku shō.

Kokunimasa ¬‘­

(active period: approx. mid to end of Meiji-period); other names: Baidō ”€“°, Ryūkei –öŠ^

He studied under his father Kunisada III. First of all he produced humorous pictures, caricatures and genre pictures. Probably identical with Kunimasa V.

Kunimasa V

see Kokunimasa

Kunimori II ‘·

(active period: 1830-1861); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other names: Ippōsai ˆê•óÖ, Ichiryūsai ˆê—´Ö, Ichireisai ˆê—íÖ, Shungyōsai t‹ÅÖ

Disciple of Kunisada I. Humorous pictures were his strong point. He produced a lot of illustrations for funny narrations in story-books.

Kunisada I

see Toyokuni II or III

Kuniteru I ‘‹P

(active period: Bunsei-period until approx. Ansei-period); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other names: Sadashige ’åd, Gochōtei ŒÜ’±’à, Shinsadatei V’å’à, Dokusuisha “ƐŒŽÉ, Ichiyūsai ˆê—YÖ, Issensai ˆêòÖ, Isshinsai ˆêSÖ

Disciple of Kunisada I. He changed his name Sadashige into Kuniteru when Kunisada renamed himself Toyokuni. One of his most famous pictures is the triptych Kyōkun sangai zu-e. Furthermore he produced some humorous pictures about the incident of the 3rd month of 1847, when the jewel, used as the eye of the statue of Enma from the temple Naitō Shinjuku Taisō-ji, was stolen.

Kuniteru II ‘‹P

(1830-1875); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other names: Ichiyūsai ˆê—YÖ, Ichiyōsai ˆê—jÖ; Yōsai —jÖ

Disciple of Kunisada I. He called himself Kunitsuna II, but changed his name in 1865 to Kuniteru II. He played an important role in the field of sumo-e and bunmei kaika-e pictures.

Kuniyoshi ‘–F

(1797-1861); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other names: Chōōrō ’©ŸN˜O, Ichiyūsai ˆê—EÖ

He was Edos leading artist of nishiki-e caricatures at the end of the Edo-period. Born in 1797 in Nihonbashi, Edo, he became an apprentice to Toyokuni I at the age of 15. In 1827 he made a name for himself with the musha-e series Tsūzoku Suikoden gōketsu hyakuhachi-nin no hitori. In the 6th month of the year 1842 the world of nishiki-e was hit hard by the law against the representation of bijin-ga and yakusha-e. But Kuniyoshi, thanks to his artistic originality and energy, gave the reform an unexpected twist. He was the first to produce humorous pictures and caricatures about Edo at the end of the Edo-period. After Kunisada had changed his hame to Toyokuni and thereby made himself the head of the Utagawa-school, it seems that Kuniyoshi did not feel to belong to this school any longer. But in autumn 1855 this famous artist, who was also called musha-e no Kuniyoshi (warriorprint Kuniyoshi), suffered an apoplectic stroke and consequently the quality of his brush stroke was diminishing noticeable. In spite of this Kuniyoshi did not give up painting, but produced simple compositions and naive drawings as well as remarkable humorous pictures and caricatures until his death at the age of 65 in the year 1861. Furthermore he dedicated himself intensely to the instruction of his disciples. It was Kuniyoshi who was basically responsible for the enormous success of the namazu-e as well as for the caricature boom of the Boshin sensō-e, that emerged after his death.

Kyōsai ‹ÅÖ

(1831-1889); family name: Kawanabe ‰Í“ç; other names: Tōiku Nobuyuki “´ˆè’”V, Chikamaro Žü–›, Kyōsai ‹¶Ö, Shōshōan à́XˆÁ

At the age of seven he studied for a short time under Kuniyoshi, afterwards Kanō Dōhaku became his teacher. In his gcrazy picturesh he criticised the social circumstances at the end of the Edo-period. Two of his famous series are Kyōsai hyaku zu, humorous interpretations of proverbs and Kyōsai rakuga about the Meiji-period.

Sadahide ’åG

(1807-?); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other names: Gyokuransai ‹Ê—–Ö, Gountei ŒÜ‰_’à, Gyokuō ‹Ê‰¥

Disciple of Kunisada I (Toyokuni III). The topics of his paintings, such as Yokohama-e or shōgun jōraku-e, were the current events of his time.

Sadafusa ’å–[

(active period: Bunsei-period until approx. Kaei-period); school: Utagawa‰Ììother names: Gokitei ŒÜ‹T’à, Gofūtei ŒÜ•–’à, Tōchōrō ‰±’±˜O

Disciple of Kunisada I. He migrated from Edo to Ōsaka.

Toyokuni II or III –L‘

, former Kunisada ‘’å (1786-1865); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other names: Gototei ŒÜ“n’à, Kōchōrō ’±˜O, Ichiyōsai ˆê—zÖ, Kiō Šì‰¥

He learned as the senior colleague, together with Kuniyoshi, under Toyokuni I. In 1829 he gained great popularity with the illustration of the multipart parody Nise Murasaki inaka Genji by Ryūtei Tanehiko. In 1844 he changed his name from Kunisada I to Toyokuni II. Later art historians gave him the name Toyokuni III, because a Toyokuni II existed already – Toyoshige that had passed away in 1837. Toyokuni was one of the leading artists in the field of bijin-ga and yakusha-e. Because he produced only very few humorous pictures, after the ban of his main topics in the course of the Tenpō-reform an artistic stagnation was unavoidable. In his later period he placed, additional to his signature the expression motome ni ōjite (by request) as a disclaimer of responsibility for his works.

Utashige ‰Ìd

(Hiroshige III Ld) family name: Andō ˆÀ“¡; other names: Ichiryūsai ˆê—§Ö, Ryūsai —§Ö

Disciple of Hiroshige I. Under the name Utashige he produced a lot of pictures that can be classified under the categories Boshin sensō-e and bunmei kaika-e, otherwise he signed with Hiroshige.

Yoshifuji –F“¡

(1828-1878); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other names: Ippōsai ˆê–QÖ, Yoshifuji ‚悵“¡

Disciple of Kuniyoshi. A lot of humorous pictures as ken no e, Yokohama-e, hashika-e, Boshin sensō-e or bunmei kaika-e remained from Yoshifuji. But his strong point were the "omocha-e" and that is why he got known as the omocha-e no Yoshifuji (childplay-pictures Yoshifuji).

Yoshifusa –F–[

(1837-1860); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other name: Ippōsai ˆê•óÖ

A disciple of Kuniyoshi. Due to his early death he did not produce many pictures. Because he died just eight months before his teacher Kuniyoshi, he appeared together with his teacher on the shini-e Yoshiiku drew for Kuniyoshi.

Yoshiiku –FŠô

(1833-1904); familiy name: Ochiai —Ž‡; school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other names: Ikkeisai ˆêŒbÖ, Ikkunsai ˆêŒOÖ, Chōkarō ’©‰à˜O, Sharakusai Ÿ­—ŽÖ

Around 1849 he became a disciple of Kuniyoshi. Beginning with the Ansei-period he started to draw yakusha-e and bijin-ga. As successor of his teacher Kuniyoshi, after his teacherfs death, he achieved a prominent position among the artists who drew caricatures and humorous pictures about the current events of that time, such as Boshin sensō-e and bunmei kaika-e. From 1874 onwards he illustrated reports from the newspaper Tōkyō nichinichi shinbun in the form of nishiki-e (shinbun nishiki-e). The following year he published his own newspaper Tōkyō eiri shinbun, and 1879 the kabuki-newspaper Kabuki shinpō. His disciples were Ikumaru, Ikuei and Ikumasa.

Yoshikazu –Fˆõ

(active period: 1848-1870); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other names: Ichijusai ˆêŽõÖ, Issensai ˆêìÖ

Disciple of Kuniyoshi. He was one of the pioneers of the Yokohama-e. He painted a lot of humorous pictures and caricatures, but is particularly famous for his dōke kyōga.

Yoshimori –F·

(1830-1885); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other names: Ikkōsai ˆêŒõÖ, Sakuranbō ÷‚ñ–V

Already at an early age he became a disciple of Kuniyoshi and gained a great proficiency at musha-e and jiji-e. He was also active in the field of shōgun jōraku-e, Suehiro gojūsan tsugi and Yokohama-e.

Yoshimune –F@

(1817-1880); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other name: Isshōsai ˆê¼Ö

At the age of 19 he became a disciple of Kuniyoshi, but was expelled about ten times and accepted again into his school. The series shōgun jōraku-e is a team work.

Yoshitora –FŒÕ

(active period: mid Tenpō-period until approx. mid Meiji-period); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other names: Ichimōsai ˆê–ҍÖ, Mōsai –ҍÖ, Kinchōrō ‹Ñ’©˜O

The oldest disciple of Kuniyoshi specialised on the musha-e type of caricatures. After a conflict he was banned from the school. For his satirical picture about Tokugawa Ieyoshi from 1849 Dōke musha miyo no wakamochi he got punished with 50 days of handcuffs. In 1868 his name stood on the second position on the granking list for nishiki-e mastersh after Sadahide. A lot of his humorous pictures and caricatures, such as the ken no e, Yokohama-e, Chōshū seibatsu-e or bunmei kaika-e are preserved. Furthermore he worked as a newspaper journalist in the Meiji-period.

Yoshitoshi –F”N

(1839-1892); family name: Tsukioka ŒŽ‰ª; other names: Gyokuōrō ‹ÊŸN˜O, Ikkaisai ˆêŠ@Ö, Taiso ‘å‘h, Sokatei ™ð‰Ø’à

In 1850 he became a student of Kuniyoshi. At the end of the Edo-period he dedicated himself to historical events but also to events of that time. In the Meiji-period he published some illustrations of reports in the newspapers Nishiki-e shinbun and Efiri jiyū shinbun (shinbun nishiki-e). Also humorous picture series like Tōkyō kaika kyōga meisho and Kigen kurabe have been passed down to us.

Yoshitoyo –F–L

(1830-1866); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other name: Ichiryūsai ˆê—´Ö

First he was a disciple of Kunisada I, but when Kunisada modified his name to Toyokuni II he changed to Kuniyoshi as his new teacher. Kuniyoshi reportedly named him gYoshitoyoh to express the situation that (Kuni)yoshi stands above Toyo(kuni). Beside musha-e he also painted hashika-e, Yokohama-e and misemono-e.

Yoshitsuya –F‰

(1822-1866); school: Utagawa ‰Ìì; other names: Ichieisai ˆê‰hÖ Ichieisai, ˆê‰pÖ

At the age of 15 he became a student of Kuniyoshi. He painted a lot of musha-e and designs for tattoos. Many of his caricatures were influenced by the musha-e of Kuniyoshi.